Isabel_Kum. As a result, he may now be suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). publish animal research require that the authors affirm that the research was done in accordance with particular ethical standards. STUDY. Created by. Tyler could benefit most from seeing a _____ psychologist. Psychoactive drugs can alter brain functioning by blocking neurotransmitter receptor sites on postsynaptic neurons. Ethical research (100%) Psychology. Discuss the ethical standards for research that guide us today. In an experiment, the dependent variable is: The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on: After a car crash, Tyler was left with a number of chronic and disabling health conditions and was having trouble adjusting to the situation. Ethical standards for animal research in psychology: A. are identical to the standards for research using human participants. The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) of 1966 is the only federal law in the United States regulating the treatment of animals in research; while some other laws and policies may include additional species coverage or specifications for animal care and use, all refer to the AWA as the minimally acceptable standard for animal treatment and care. Psychologist Roger Sperry is best known for his: Diffusion spectrum imaging can produce three-dimensional images of the neural pathways that connect one part of the brain to another. PSYC 571: Tests and Measurements (Harrisburg) Links to databases and other resources for finding psychological testing instruments. Anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia. An experiment, which is unethical as an idea, cannot be considered ethical simply because the research follows an ethical procedure. Learn. Log in Sign up. The results of experiments conducted in the laboratory may not replicate well, meaning that the results cannot be applied to real-world situations or to more general populations beyond the participants in the study. The painless killing of a patient from am incurable and painful disease. The case study method is often used to help develop a profile of a psychotherapy client. There are various codes of conducts in psychological researches which guides the psychologists while conducting any psychological research keeping in mind that there should be no chance of violence of any type of ethical norms or principles. Later, Hebb carefully records how many attempts it takes each rat to learn to run a maze with no mistakes. Spell. Who was the first person to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States? Sports psychology uses psychological theory and knowledge to enhance athletic motivation, performance, and consistency. A midbrain area called the substantia nigra contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons and is involved in motor control. Which subdivision of the nervous system helped calm down and restore Paul's body functioning back to normal? In 1932, in Tuskegee, Alabama, the U.S. Public Health Service began a research study to investigate the course of _____ in the human male. The 3Rs are: Replacement: methods which avoid or replace the use of animals in research; Reduction: use of methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals… To promote greater tolerance and acceptance of cultural differences, ethnocentrism should be encouraged. Replacement (animal) animals should be replaced with invertebrates or less responsive alternatives whenever possible. Flashcards. Random selection is a process by which participants are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study. The myelin sheath is a white, fatty covering that surrounds the axons of some neurons and increases their communication speed. Gravity. Limitations And Benefits Of Psychological Research On Animals: Many people see animal testing as a cruel and inhumane practice. Hearing a muffled meow, Paul realized that his cat was shut in the closet and was pushing against the door. In order to prevent undue suffering, ethical considerations in animal studies are important. Research and Publication 8.01 Institutional Approval When institutional approval is required, psychologists provide accurate information about their research proposals and obtain approval prior to conducting the research. Replacement Refinement Reduction (Animal) What are the three R's. The neuron's genetic material (DNA) is found in the nucleus of the neuron's cell body. Forcing participants to participate in research without their consent is called. For scientific research to be called truly progressive and ben… Another group was taught using standard methods for teaching reading. D) apply only to research using monkeys and chimps. Monitor on Psychology, 34(1) ... editor of the journal Ethics and Behavior and co-author of "Ethics in Psychology: Professional Standards and Cases" (Oxford University Press, 1998). injection of drugs before surgical operations. Upgrade to remove ads. Chimpanzee Research: The Beginning of the End? Although Franz Gall and the phrenologists were wrong about the significance of bumps on the skull, they were correct about the idea that different psychological functions are localized in different brain areas. READ MORE IB Psychology Exam Question Banks. Write. NON-HARMFUL PROCEDURES: The investigator should use no research procedure that may harm the child either physically or psychologically. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. His friends joke that Randy seems addicted to exercise. NHS research). Ethical codes, such as those established by the American Psychological Association, are designed to protect the safety and best interests of those who participate in psychological research. Which of the following statements is FALSE? The chapter Prologue describes the story of a young university professor named Asha who suffered a stroke. Ethical self-examination involves a careful self-analysis of one's own personal and scientific motives. Also provides explanations, search tips, and other "words to the wise" for locating and using tests. Start studying CIE AS Psychology (9990) - Ethical Guidelines for Animal Research. Researchers who use animals as experimental subjects must design their projects so that pain and distress are minimized. Even though the stroke disrupted some of Asha's language abilities, she was still able to appreciate music because her _____ was not damaged. Text. Perhaps most visible among them is the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Test. Rejecting the study of conscious experience, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were behaviorists who emphasized the importance of observable behaviors. What character traits should researchers cultivate as virtues? Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research was developed by the American Psychological Association Committee on Animal Research and Ethics in 2010-11. Public discussion about animal research is not new. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Apart of Ethics: Animal Research. Which gland produces melatonin, a hormone that helps to regulate our sleep-wake cycle? A balanced, accessible discussion of whether and on what grounds animal research can be ethically justified. A model of the cost-benefit analysis for animal research. D. apply only to research using monkeys and chimps. 8.02 Informed Consent to Research (a) When … Deception in research is one area where balancing the needs for statistical accuracy and validity against ethics is always a very difficult process. Research ethics govern the standards of conduct for scientific researchers. Ethics in Animal Experimentation. Updated by the SRCD Governing Council in March 2007. The case of Dave Duerson is discussed in the feature In Focus: Traumatic Brain Injury: From Concussion to Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. REPLACEMENT. Recent headlines illustrate the tone: 1. Which early school of psychology relied on a method called introspection? The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla play a key role in the fight-or-flight response through the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine. mother) at a young age. Ethical Standards for Research with Children Ethical Standards for Research with Children. Randy exercises more than most people and continues to train even when he has a cold or an injury. Insensitivity to pain e.g. Although the biological perspective was important when psychology was first founded, it is of little interest in contemporary psychology. The attached document sets out the BPS guidelines for all members who are engaged in psychological activities involving living animals. The guiding principle of these committees is … 1.1 : Why Are Ethics Necessary We are concerned with normative ethics, asking questions such as: What ought morality be? Ethics and Law for School Psychologists is the single best source of authoritative information on the ethical and legal issues school psychologists face every day. Research ethics govern the standards of conduct for scientific researchers. How should researchers not behave? Components. Gravity. Ending all use of animals in research has always been a goal of a number of passionate, organized, sometimes militant, and sometimes terrorist, animal rights groups. 506. A balanced, accessible discussion of whether and on what grounds animal research can be ethically justified. According to the Focus on Neuroscience in Chapter 2, Randy's compulsive exercising: In synaptic transmission, the action potential stimulates the release of: Paul was awakened by a thumping noise in the middle of the night. The guiding principle of these committees is usually the 3 Rs. Smith, D. (2003, January). The American Psychological Association's Ethical Code cites that animals should be acquired, cared for, used, and disposed of in compliance with federal, state, and local laws. Generally, before experiments on animals are conducted, the research protocol must be reviewed by animal ethics committees. Spell. Limitations And Benefits Of Psychological Research On Animals: Many people see animal testing as a cruel and inhumane practice. Research Ethics: Animal and Clinical Research When it comes to clinical research, many people think of clinical trials, but that’s only merely a small portion of a process towards a medical development involving a process call bench to the bedside. Introspection was not a good method for psychological inquiry because it could not be used to study a variety of complex topics, such as learning, development, and personality. An estimated 100 million nonhuman vertebrates worldwide—including primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, birds, rats, and mice—are bred, captured, or otherwise acquired every year for research purposes. In this study, the control group was the group that: Ethical standards for animal research in psychology: Dr. Jackson is interested in how stress affects the brain and examines PET scans of individuals before and after stressful situations. Ethics in Animal Experimentation. Some of the more important ethical issues are as follows: Who would have been most likely to say: "You behave the way you do for unconscious reasons, not because of reasons in your consciousness"? How should researchers behave? According to the In Focus box in Chapter 2, which of the following statements is TRUE? the different types of species e.g. Results of the study indicate that the children taught with the new program learned to read more complex material than the group who were exposed to standard teaching methods. _____ are the most abundant cells in the human brain. Principle 1. As Chair of the Working Group, I would like to record my thanks to all members, who have A strain of primate is a chimpanzee, initial run through of the procedures to be used in an investigation, Creatures that are greatly interactive with other members of its species, Being seperated from a loved one (e.g. The food that the animal naturally wants. He raises some rats in cages with many interesting objects to play on and explore, and other rats in isolated, barren cages with none of the interesting objects. OVER 20 years ago, the Society published its first guidance on the use of animals in psychology, in the form of a working party report. Ethics are extremely important for setting boundaries in research to determine what science can and cannot do, and the difference between right and wrong. As such, all research involving human beings should be reviewed by an ethics committee to ensure that the appropriate ethical standards are being upheld. To what extent can animal models provide insight into human behaviour? Breathing a sigh of relief, Paul let the cat out of the closet and went back to bed. An estimated 100 million nonhuman vertebrates worldwide—including primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, birds, rats, and mice—are bred, captured, or otherwise acquired every year for research purposes. During the last two decades, he has kept track of and repeatedly surveyed the same group of 3,000 participants about changes in their relationships with their parents and siblings. The use of animals in research should be scientifically relevant and appropriate. Professor Anderson is most likely a _____ psychologist. It is important to adhere to ethical principles in order to protect the dignity, rights and welfare of research participants. syphilis. Such guidelines also protect the reputations of psychologists, the field of psychology itself and the institutions that sponsor psychology research. What is the independent variable in this study? Professor Hebb is studying whether learning is affected by different environments. Check your understanding of characteristics of ethical research with an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. U.S. Suspends Use of Chimps in … Animals used in research should be maintained in a way that provides them with as much physical and psychological wellbeing as possible. Positive psychology is a field of psychological research that focuses on the study of positive psychological states, positive individual traits, and social institutions that foster these qualities in individuals and communities. Five principles for research ethics. Created by. APA's 2002 Ethics Code, which takes effect June 1, mandates that psychologists who use animals in research: Acquire, care for, use and dispose of animals in compliance with current federal, state and local laws and regulations, and with professional standards. Attention to its current status and future are reflected in broad and sustained news coverage, intense debate, and emotional pleas delivered via mainstream and social media by scientists, scientific societies, animal protection groups, and animal rights activists. Which of the following would violate ethical standards for psychological research? As a result of these cumulative traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), he is suffering various symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, poor judgment, lack of impulse control, and problems with memory, concentration, and attention. Flashcards. For most studies, the informed consent policy is used - when not used, an ethical committee must approve that the deception does not cause harm or distrust of research. It considers the ethical issues of research involving animals in the light of these developments, the implications for regulation, and the provision of information and education. John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner were two important American psychologists associated with the school of behaviorism. Test. They argue that all life is sacred and animals go through a lot of distress during experiments in which they involuntarily take part. Match. _____ wrote On the Origin of Species, which was published in _____. C. are set by the American Psychological Association and by state and federal laws. Motor neurons convey information about the environment from specialized receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain. Animal research requires the approval of an IACUC, and all animal facilities are subject to regular inspections to ensure that animals are being treated humanely. are set by the American Psychological Association and by state and federal laws The British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) have both issued a code of ethics in psychology that provides guidelines for the conduct of research. Reliability, Validity, and Ethics Search this Guide Search. (c) External Ethics Committee (EEC): for research that is externally regulated (e.g. 1.Replacement 2.Species and Strain 3.Number of animals 4.Procedures: Pain and distress 5.Housing 6.Reward, Deprivation and Aversive stimuli 7. The term endorphin is actually a combination of the words _____ and _____. Jordan_Young06. Search. minimize harm and obtain informed consent minimize physical harm and minimize psychological harm Stephen E. G. Lea introduces the Society’s new guidelines for psychologists working with animals. Ethical principles of Psychologydirect what should be focused in regards to ethics during a research. APA Ethics Code and Other Guidelines Cover Treatment of Research Animals The APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct includes principles for the humane and ethical treatment of research animals. Members on the committee were Gary Dunbar, PhD, Jennifer Higa, PhD, Theresa Jones, PhD, Barbara Kaminski, PhD, Scott Robinson, PhD, Rodney Swain, PhD, Pamela Scott-Johnson, PhD, Eric Wiertelak, … In order to prevent undue suffering, ethical considerations in animal studies are important. Chimpanzee research achieved new levels of attention within both the public and scientific sphere in the last year. Start studying Ethical research (100%) Psychology. Learn. The test subjects are treated as objects rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and kept in improper cages. Which of the following results has NOT been reported in rats that were raised in an enriched environment as compared to rats raised in an impoverished environment? They argue that all life is sacred and animals go through a lot of distress during experiments in which they involuntarily take part. Key structures of the limbic system include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Animals used in research should not be subjected to unnecessary pain and distress. Browse. According to the In Focus box, he is likely suffering from: Claude has suffered many head injuries during his long professional ice hockey career. Towards an ethical use of animals. The receiving, or postsynaptic, neuron can have many differently shaped receptor sites on its dendrites, allowing it to receive more than one type of neurotransmitter. 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